A provider is a company that provides Internet access and other related services.

What services does the provider provide?

Providers provide services to both individuals and companies. The main function is Internet access, which can be provided in various ways.

Digital Subscriber Line. The user gets access to the Internet using a telephone line. DSL is a widely available technology that is gradually being replaced by broadband connections — cable and fiber. DSL provides download speeds from 5 to 35 Mbit/s, upload speeds from 1 to 10 Mbit/s.

Cable Internet connection. The provider uses a coaxial cable, which is also used for television. It has a low latency, download speed — from 10 to 500 Mbit/s, data transfer rate — from 5 to 50 Mbit/s.

Fiber-optic Internet. Provides higher speed compared to DSL or cable. The data download speed over fiber is from 250 to 1,000 Mbit/s, the data transfer rate is from 250 to 1,000 Mbit/s.

Satellite Internet connection. It is carried out using communication satellites. Ground stations transmit Internet data in the form of radio waves to satellites in low Earth orbit. Data is sent from satellites to more distant ground stations. Satellite Internet is used in remote regions. The download speed is from 12 to 100 Mbit/s, the upload speed is 3 Mbit/s.

Additional Internet services provided by the provider may include:

  • registration of domain names,
  • web hosting,
  • virtual server rentals,
  • placement of the client’s equipment in their data center,
  • data backup,
  • mobile commerce services,
  • payment services.

How does the provider work?

The Internet service provider has the equipment and access to telecommunication lines that are necessary for the point of presence on the Internet in the geographical area served. All providers are connected to each other through network access points — public network facilities on the Internet backbone. Providers are divided into several levels.

Tier-1 operators own the main underwater Internet highways connecting continents. These companies have the most global reach and own enough physical network lines to independently transmit most of the traffic. Tier-1 companies usually sell network access to second-tier providers.

Tier-2 providers are national companies providing services throughout the country. Second-tier suppliers are focused on commercial customers.

Tier-3 operators are regional or urban providers that send traffic packets directly to the user. They connect customers to the Internet using another provider’s network. Tier-3 companies pay higher-level providers for access to Internet services.

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